Two recent federal cases illustrate why employers – even federal contractors – must be cognizant of relevant state-law pronouncements regarding the use of marijuana (i.e., cannabis) by employees. While one case found in favor of the employer, and the other in favor of the employee, these decisions have emphasized that state law protections for users of medical marijuana are not preempted by federal laws such as the Drug-Free Workplace Act (DFWA). Employers must craft a thoughtful and considered approach to marijuana in the workplace, and in most cases should not take a zero-tolerance approach to marijuana.

Ninth Circuit Finds in Favor of Employer Who Discharged Employee for Positive Drug Test

In Carlson v. Charter Communication, LLC, the Ninth Circuit affirmed the dismissal of a lawsuit brought by an employee who alleged discrimination under the Montana Medical Marijuana Act (MMA) because he was discharged for testing positive for marijuana use. The plaintiff, a medical marijuana cardholder under Montana state law, tested positive for THC (a cannabinoid) after an accident in a company-owned vehicle. His employer, a federal contractor required to comply with the DFWA, terminated his employment because the positive test result violated its employment policy.

The District Court of Montana held that the employer was within its rights to discharge the plaintiff because (1) the DFWA preempts the MMA on the issue of whether a federal contractor can employ a medical marijuana user; and (2) the MMA does not provide employment protections to medical marijuana cardholders. Indeed, the MMA specifically states that employers are not required to accommodate the use of medical marijuana, and the Act does not permit a cause of action against an employer for wrongful discharge or discrimination. The Ninth Circuit rejected this rationale. Because the MMA does not prevent employers from prohibiting employees from using marijuana and does not permit employees for suing for discrimination or wrongful termination, the Ninth Circuit held that the MMA does not preclude federal contractors from complying with the DFWA and thus found no conflict.

The plaintiff asserted that the provisions of the MMA exempting employers from accommodating registered users and prohibiting such users from bringing wrongful discharge or discrimination lawsuits against employers are unconstitutional and sought certification of the question to the Montana Supreme Court. The Ninth Circuit rejected this request because, it determined, the Montana Supreme Court already decided the issue. The MMA and the specific sections challenged by the plaintiff appropriately balance Montana’s legitimate state interest in regulating access to a controlled substance while avoiding entanglement with federal law, which classifies the substance as illegal.

Plaintiff Wins Summary Judgment Against Employer That Rescinded Job Offer Due to Positive Test

If federal law does not preempt state law on the issue of marijuana, then in certain states – like Connecticut – employers will be more susceptible to discrimination claims from marijuana users. In Noffsinger v. SSC Niantic Operating Company, the District of Connecticut granted summary judgment to a plaintiff-employee of Bride Brook Nursing & Rehabilitation Center who used medical marijuana to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (“PTSD”) and whose offer was rescinded for testing positive for THC during a post-offer drug screen. Plaintiff filed a discrimination claim under the Connecticut Palliative Use of Marijuana Act (“PUMA”), which makes it illegal for an employer to refuse to hire a person or discharge, penalize, or threaten an employee “solely on the basis of such person’s or employee’s status as a qualifying patient or primary caregiver.”

We covered a previous decision in this case, in which the court held that PUMA is not preempted by the federal Controlled Substance Act (“CSA”), the Americans with Disabilities Act, or the Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”). The decision was notable then for being the first federal decision to hold that the CSA does not preempt a state medical marijuana law’s anti-discrimination provision, a departure from a previous federal decision in New Mexico.

In this recent decision, the District Court again considered whether PUMA was preempted by federal law. In ruling for the Plaintiff, the court rejected Bride Brook’s argument that its practices fall within an exception to PUMA’s anti-discrimination provision because they are “required by federal law or required to obtain federal funding.” Bride Brook argued that in order to comply with DFWA, which requires federal contractors to make a good faith effort to maintain a drug-free workplace, it could not hire plaintiff because of her failed pre-employment drug-test. The court was not persuaded, concluding that the DFWA does not require drug testing, nor does it prohibit federal contractors from employing people who use illegal drugs outside the workplace. The court noted that simply because Bride Brook’s zero-tolerance policy went beyond the requirements of the DFWA does not mean that hiring the plaintiff would violate the Act.

The court also rejected Bride Brook’s argument that the federal False Claims Act (“FCA”) prohibits employers from hiring marijuana users because doing so would amount to defrauding the federal government. Because no federal law prohibits employers from hiring individuals who use medicinal marijuana outside of work, employers do not defraud the government by hiring those individuals.

Lastly, the court rejected the theory that PUMA only prohibits discrimination on the basis of one’s registered status and not the actual use of marijuana, as such a holding would undermine the very purpose for which the employee obtained the status.

What These Decisions Mean for Employers

These decisions are notable for the fact that the federal courts refused to find the state laws were preempted by federal law. Importantly, neither found that the DFWA preempts state law, which means that even federal contractors must be aware of and follow state law with respect to marijuana use by employees. Thus, in states in which employers may not discriminate against medical marijuana users – such as Connecticut – all employers must take care not to make adverse employment decisions based solely on off-duty marijuana use and, in certain states, must accommodate medical marijuana use. A majority of states and the District of Columbia now permit the use of medical marijuana; employers, including federal contractors, should be mindful of these statutes and consult with counsel to ensure their employment policies are compliant.

The Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) has released Notice 2018-94, which extends the due date for furnishing the 2018 Form 1095-B and Form 1095-C to individuals from January 31, 2019 to March 4, 2019.

This extension is automatic, and, as a result, the IRS will not formally respond to any pending extension requests for furnishing the forms to individuals. In addition, filers do not need to submit a request or documentation to take advantage of this extension. Despite the extension, the IRS is encouraging employers and other coverage providers to furnish the 2018 statements as soon as they are able.

Forms 1095-B are used to report whether individuals have minimum essential coverage (“MEC”) and, therefore, are not liable for the individual shared responsibility payment. Forms 1095-C are used to report information about offers of health coverage and enrollment in health coverage for employees, to determine whether an employer owes an employer shared responsibility payment, and to determine the eligibility of employees for the premium tax credit. Under the Affordable Care Act’s (“ACA’s”) employer mandate, applicable large employers (“ALEs”) (those employing on average at least 50 full-time employees and full-time equivalents in the prior calendar year), are required to offer MEC to at least 95% of their full-time employees (and their dependents) that is “affordable” and provides “minimum value” to avoid applicable penalties. [1]

Notice 2018-94 does not extend the due date for filing the Forms 1094-B, 1095-B, 1094-C and 1095-C with the IRS, with the due date remaining February 28, 2019, if not filing electronically, or April 1, 2019, if filing electronically. Employers may still obtain an automatic 30-day extension to file the required forms by filing a Form 8809 with the IRS on or before the forms’ due date. An employer may also receive an additional 30-day extension under certain hardship conditions.

Employers who fail to comply with the extended due dates for furnishing Forms 1095-B and 1095-C to individuals or for filing the Forms 1094-B, 1095-B, 1094-C and 1095-C are subject to penalties. However, an employer that fails to meet the relevant due dates should still furnish and file the required forms as soon as possible. The IRS will take such furnishing and filing of the forms into determining whether to decrease penalties for reasonable cause.

Below is a chart of the applicable deadlines for 2018 Forms and the applicable reporting entities:

Reporting Entity

No Plan

Fully-Insured Plan Self-Insured Plan

Deadline for 2018 Forms

Non-ALE

No filing required. No filing required. Forms 1094-B and 1095-B To individuals:

March 4, 2019

 

To the IRS:

February 28, 2019, if filing by paper; or

April 1, 2019, if filing electronically.

ALE

Forms 1094-C and 1095-C (except Part III; leave blank). Forms 1094-C and 1095-C (except Part III; leave blank). Forms 1094-C and 1095-C for employees.

Either B- or C-Series forms for non-employees.

Insurance Provider

No filing required. Forms 1094-B and 1095-B. Not applicable.

Extension of Good Faith Relief

Similar to the good-faith relief provided in 2015, 2016, and 2017, the IRS will not impose penalties on employers that can show that they made good-faith efforts to comply with the requirements for calendar year 2018. This relief is available only for incorrect and incomplete information reported on the statements or returns, such as missing and inaccurate taxpayer identification numbers and dates of birth. In determining good faith, the IRS will consider whether an employer made reasonable efforts to comply with the requirements (e.g., gathering and transmitting the necessary data to an agent or testing its ability to transmit information).

Good faith relief is not available to employers who have failed to timely furnish or file a statement or comply with the regulations. However, if an employer is late filing a return, it may be possible to get a penalty abatement for failures that are due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. To establish reasonable cause, an employer must show that it acted in a responsible manner and that the failure was due to significant mitigating factors or events beyond its control.

Individual Mandate and Reporting In Future Years

Individuals do not need to wait to receive the Form 1095-C to file their 2018 tax returns, but should keep these forms for their records. They may rely on other information provided by their employers or other service providers to determine their eligibility for a premium tax subsidy and confirming whether they have had MEC to avoid an individual mandate penalty in 2018. Individuals do not need to send the information they relied upon to the IRS when they send their returns.

Notably, while the individual shared responsibility payment is reduced to zero beginning January 1, 2019, the IRS will continue to study whether and how the reporting requirements should change, if at all, for future years. In the meantime, employers and other service providers should continue to collect information in 2019 needed to comply with all ACA reporting requirements.

_______________

[1] The penalties for failure to comply with these ACA requirements could result in penalties under Internal Revenue Code Section 4980H(a) (“A Penalty”) and Section 4980H(b) (“B Penalty”). The “A Penalty” is $2,320 in 2018 ($2,500 in 2019) for each full-time employee (minus 30 employees) of the employer, including full-time employees who have MEC from another employer plan or another source. The “B Penalty” is $3,480 in 2018 ($3,750 in 2019) for each employee that obtains a premium tax credit.

Based on proposed regulations released by the U.S. Department of Treasury on November 14, 2018 (the “Proposed Regulations”), participants in 401(k) and 403(b) plans may find it easier to get hardship withdrawals as early as plan years beginning after December 31, 2018. Hardship withdrawals are permitted on account of financial hardships if the distribution is made in response to an “immediate and heavy financial need” and the distribution is necessary to satisfy that need. The Proposed Regulations incorporate various prior statutory changes, including changes imposed by the 2017 Tax Act, the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, and the Pension Protection Act of 2006. These changes are summarized below:

1. Safe Harbor Expenses. Under the current regulations, a withdrawal to cover an expense on the safe harbor list is deemed to be made on account of an immediate and heavy financial need. The Proposed Regulations expand the safe harbor list of expenses for which a participant may take a hardship withdrawal, which may be applied to withdrawals occurring on or after January 1, 2018. The primary changes to the safe harbor list made by the Proposed Regulations are:

  • the expansion of the category of individuals for whom a participant may take a hardship distribution for qualifying medical, educational, and funeral expenses incurred by a participant to include a “primary beneficiary under the plan”, i.e., the individual who the participant has designated as the beneficiary to receive the participant’s plan account upon the death of the participant;
  • the elimination of the requirement that expenses related to damage to a principal residence that would qualify for a casualty deduction under Section 165 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended be attributable to a federally declared disaster, which was imposed by the 2017 Tax Act; and
  • the addition of a new item allowing for hardship distributions for expenses incurred as a result of certain disasters that occur in areas designated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (“FEMA”) as eligible for individual assistance.

2. Six-Month Deferral Suspension Requirement Eliminated. Under current regulations, a plan participant must be prohibited from making elective deferrals and employee contributions for six months and must take any available plan loans before the hardship withdrawal. Under the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, the six-month suspension requirement must be eliminated by January 1, 2020 and the Proposed Regulations allow the six-month suspension to be eliminated for plan years after December 31, 2018 if the plan sponsor so elects. The elimination of the six-month suspension reflects the concern of Congress that a suspension would impede the employee’s ability to replace distributed funds. Plans, however, may elect to continue to require a plan loan prior to a hardship withdrawal.

3. Participant Representation. To determine whether a distribution is necessary to satisfy an immediate and heavy financial need, the Proposed Regulations rely on the following general non-safe harbor standard:

  • the withdrawal may not exceed the amount of the participant’s need; and
  • the participant must have obtained other available distributions under the employer plans.

Under the current regulations, the plan must use a facts and circumstances test to establish the general non-safe harbor standard. Effective as of January 1, 2020, a participant seeking a hardship withdrawal must represent that he or she has insufficient cash or other liquid assets to satisfy the financial need. The plan administrator may rely on the representation unless the plan administrator has actual knowledge to the contrary.

4. Expanded Sources. The current regulations generally only permit hardship withdrawals from elective contributions. Under the Proposed Regulations, a plan may permit hardship withdrawals from elective contributions, qualified non-elective contributions (QNECs), and qualified matching contributions (QMACs), and also from earnings on these contributions, regardless of when contributed or earned. Since contributions to a 401(k) safe harbor plan are subject to the same limitations as QNECs and QMACs, the Proposed Regulations provide that safe harbor contributions may also be a source for hardship withdrawals.

5. 403(b) Plans. The Proposed Regulations will have some impact on 403(b) plans. While income attributable to elective deferrals will not be eligible for hardship withdrawals under the Proposed Regulations, QNECs and QMACs that are not in a custodial account may be withdrawn on account of hardship.

6. Relief for Hurricane Victims. Because the Treasury Department and IRS recognized that employees adversely impacted by Hurricanes Florence and Michael might need expedited access to their plan accounts, the Proposed Regulations extend to these employees the relief provided by Announcement 2017-15 to victims of Hurricane Maria and the California wildfires. The new automatic FEMA safe harbor standard described above will provide greater certainty and expedited access for plan sponsors and participants that may be affected in the future by such disasters.

Effective Dates and Plan Amendments

As noted above, the Proposed Regulations generally apply to hardship withdrawals made in plan years beginning after December 31, 2018, with a few exceptions described above.

Once the Proposed Regulations are finalized, the deadline for adopting plan amendments related to the final hardship withdrawal regulations will be the end of the second calendar year that begins after the issuance of the Required Amendments List that includes the changes. However, since many of the changes included in the Proposed Regulations reflect statutory changes, plan sponsors may wish to adopt some of the required amendments in 2019 so that their plan documents are consistent with plan administration.

Cannabis has been legalized in Canada as of October 17, 2018. What does this mean for employers with employees traveling to and from Canada? Can travelers from Canada to the United States with legally purchased cannabis simply drive to a state where recreational or medical use of cannabis is legal? The bottom line: Employers should remind employees that they cannot cross into the United States with Canadian cannabis under any circumstances.

The framework created in Canada did not change laws regarding borders. A traveler who purchases legal cannabis in Canada may not enter the United States with it, regardless of whether the person is traveling to a state that has legalized marijuana. Cannabis remains illegal under federal law and crossing any U.S. – Canada border will result in legal prosecution by the federal government. This applies to any amount and any form of cannabis, including medical marijuana.

The same is true if one were returning to Canada with legally purchased cannabis from Canada. This act is illegal. There is no situation where a receipt can be shown to “prove” the origin. The origin does not matter. The act of taking cannabis across the border is illegal.

Further, for the same reasons, cannabis cannot be brought on international flights even if the flight originated from Canada. It is expected that declaration forms on flights originating from Canada traveling to the U.S. may include questions on cannabis. Given how relatively new the legalization and regulation of cannabis is in Canada, travelers should expect to see and/or hear increased questions about cannabis possession and use, generally, at the borders.

Forget bringing cannabis purchased in Canada into the U.S. Even a single past use of cannabis may lead travelers to unforeseen legal troubles. The Canadian government warns that previous use of cannabis could result in the traveler being denied entry to the destination country, including the U.S. This could be a lifetime ban that may take years to sort for these noncitizens.

Certain other travelers may be inadmissible to the U.S. due to their ties to cannabis. Canadian citizens working in the marijuana industry, for example, may be denied entry to the U.S. if they are traveling to the U.S. for reasons related to that industry. In addition, while Canada intends to pardon citizens with simple marijuana possession convictions, the U.S. does not recognize foreign pardons, and so these individuals also could be deemed inadmissible to enter the U.S.

Last month, the New York State Court of Appeals invalidated a state Department of Health (DOH) regulation that restricted certain health care providers contracting with the state from paying executives more than $199,000 annually, regardless of whether the funds came from the state or not. However, the Court upheld two other DOH regulations; one that limits providers from using public tax-payer money directly to pay executives in excess of $199,000 annually, and another that limits the amount of public funds used for administrative costs.

In January 2012, Governor Andrew Cuomo issued Executive Order 38 in response to media reports calling out high executive compensation rates among nonprofit health care organizations receiving funds from Medicaid. Executive Order 38 directed the DOH to regulate the use of state funds for executive compensation and administrative costs. Consistent with this executive order, the DOH implemented three regulations that imposed: (1) a “hard cap” prohibiting covered providers from using public funds directly to pay executives more than $199,000 (2) another “hard cap” limiting the percentage of public funds used for administrative costs to fifteen percent annually by 2015; and (3) a “soft cap” subjecting covered providers to penalties should they pay executives, with certain exceptions, more than $199,000, regardless of whether the money used to pay them came from public or private sources.

Shortly after the regulations were announced, a group of nursing homes, assisted-living programs, home-care agencies, and trade associations brought lawsuits challenging the DOH’s authority to issue the regulations. These lawsuits, arguing that the DOH exceeded its regulatory authority in promulgating the regulations, eventually made their way all the way up to the courts to the Court of Appeals.

The Court’s majority opinion in LeadingAge New York, Inc. v. Shah, authored by Chief Judge DiFiore, held that the hard cap regulations fell within the DOH’s regulatory authority and were valid agency actions. With regard to the soft cap, however, the majority concluded that the DOH did in fact exceed its authority, usurped the Legislature’s role, and violated the separation of powers doctrine. Accordingly, the soft cap regulation subjecting covered providers to penalties if they paid executives above the $199,000 threshold, regardless of the source of funds, was struck down by the Court.

In accordance with this decision, covered health care providers who contract with the state will no longer need to comply with the “soft cap” regulation or fear penalties for failure to do so. However, health care providers covered by the “hard cap” regulations will still need to comply with the limitations set under those regulations, absent an applicable exception.

Our colleague at Epstein Becker Green has a post on the Retail Labor and Employment Law blog that will be of interest to our readers in the health care industry: “DOJ Finally Chimes In On State of the Website Accessibility Legal Landscape – But Did Anything Really Change?

Following is an excerpt:

As those of you who have followed my thoughts on the state of the website accessibility legal landscape over the years are well aware, businesses in all industries continue to face an onslaught of demand letters and state and federal court lawsuits (often on multiple occasions, at times in the same jurisdiction) based on the concept that a business’ website is inaccessible to individuals with disabilities. One of the primary reasons for this unfortunate situation is the lack of regulations or other guidance from the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) which withdrew long-pending private sector website accessibility regulations late last year. Finally, after multiple requests this summer from bi-partisan factions of Members Congress, DOJ’s Office of Legislative Affairs recently issued a statement clarifying DOJ’s current position on website accessibility. Unfortunately, for those hoping that DOJ’s word would radically alter the playing field and stem the endless tide of litigations, the substance of DOJ’s response makes that highly unlikely.

DOJ’s long-awaited commentary makes two key points…

Read the full post here.

Employers and health plans should be aware that two recent federal decisions have recognized that the non-discrimination provision in the Affordable Care Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender identity. Plans cannot categorically exclude coverage for procedures to treat gender dysphoria.

In Boyden v. Conlin, the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin found that the state’s exclusion of gender reassignment-related procedures from the state employees’ health insurance coverage constitutes sex discrimination in violation of Section 1557 of the Affordable Care Act (the “ACA”) and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Section 1557 of the ACA prohibits discrimination and the denial of benefits under a health program or activity, any part of which is in receipt of federal financial assistance, on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability. The plaintiffs, two transgender women employed by the State of Wisconsin, also alleged that the exclusion violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

This case involved the exclusion of “procedures, services, and supplies related to surgery and sex hormones associated with gender reassignment” from the health insurance coverage. Pursuant to the exclusion, the health plan did not cover hormone therapy involving gender reassignment surgery, or the surgery itself. Defendants argued that the exclusion did not discriminate on the basis of sex because the plan excludes coverage for all cosmetic treatments for psychological conditions, and because the exclusion simply prohibits coverage for gender reassignment procedures, not because plaintiffs are transgender. The court disagreed, finding that the case constituted a “straightforward case of sex discrimination” because the exclusion treated people differently based on their natal sex. The court also found that the exclusion implicated “sex stereotyping by limiting the availability of medical transition … thus requiring transgender individuals to maintain the physical characteristics of their natal sex.”

The court also found liability against the state on plaintiffs’ Equal Protection Clause claim. In applying heightened scrutiny review, the court concluded that the state failed to show that the exclusion was the product of cost concerns or concerns about the safety and efficacy of gender reassignment surgery and hormone therapy. Because the state could not put forth evidence of a genuine reason for the exclusion, the court found in favor of plaintiffs on the Equal Protection Claim.

Two days after the decision in Boyden, in Tovar v. Essentia Health, the District Court for the District of Minnesota held that Section 1557 prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender identity. In that case, plaintiffs alleged that Essentia Health and HealthPartners Inc. violated Section 1557 by sponsoring or administering a plan that categorically excluded coverage for all health services and surgery related to gender reassignment. Section 1557 incorporates four federal civil rights statutes that prohibit discrimination on the basis of: race, color and national origin (Title VI); sex (Title IX); age (ADEA); and disability (Rehabilitation Act). Concluding that Title IX’s prohibition against sex discrimination should be read as coextensive with Title VII, and noting that courts have recognized a cause of action under Title VII for sex discrimination based on gender identity and gender-transition status, the court determined that “sex discrimination encompasses gender-identity discrimination.” The court thus concluded that Section 1557 prohibits gender identity discrimination and denied defendants’ motion to dismiss.

The court also declined to stay the action pending resolution of Franciscan Alliance, Inc. v. Burwell, in which the Northern District of Texas issued a nationwide injunction enjoining enforcement of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regulations providing that Section 1557’s prohibition of sex discrimination encompasses gender identity discrimination. The Minnesota court concluded that a stay was not warranted because its conclusion that Section 1557 prevents discrimination based on gender identity is based on the plain reading of the statute and does not rely on the Franciscan Alliance decision.

Employer Takeaways

These two cases are the latest in a series in which plaintiffs allege that their employer sponsored health plans are designed in a manner that discriminates based on gender identify in violation of Section 1557 of the ACA and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. While an earlier decision (Baker v. Aetna Life Insurance Co., 228 F. Supp. 3d 764 (N.D. Tex. 2017)) by the Northern District of Texas declined to find a cause of action for gender identity discrimination under Section 1557, these decisions are in line with the current trend to allow gender identity discrimination claims to be pursued under Section 1557. Therefore, while HHS continues its current policy of non-enforcement of allegations of gender identity discrimination under Section 1557, employers should be aware of provisions in their group health plans that exclude coverage for transgender benefits and litigation risks that these provisions may pose.

Notably, the plans in both Boyden and Tovar included categorical exclusions for services and/or surgeries related to gender reassignment or transition. These categorical exclusions often are a red flag. By contrast, in Baker, the plan did not categorically exclude gender reassignment procedures; there, the insurance company denied the plaintiff’s request for breast augmentation surgery as not medically necessary. The Baker court found in favor of defendants on both the Section 1557 and Title VII claims. Thus, employers are advised to review their plans to ensure that services to treat gender dysphoria and related conditions are made available to their covered employees.

President Trump’s recently issued Executive Order entitled “Strengthening Retirement Security In America” (the “EO”) may be helpful to businesses that sponsor or participate in multiple employer retirement plans (“MEPs”), as well as single employer plans, even if the sponsors and employers are not small business owners. While the stated purpose of the EO, which was issued on August 31, 2018 (the “EO Date”), is to “promote retirement security for America’s workers,” the EO directs attention to small business owners (less than 100 employees), noting that such businesses are less likely than larger businesses to offer retirement benefits. The EO also notes that regulatory burdens and complexity can be costly and discourage businesses, especially small ones, from offering retirement plans to employees. This post summarizes the four actions identified in the EO that the Federal Government may take to promote retirement security. While these actions are intended to benefit small businesses, large businesses that participate may benefit as well.

First, the EO may expand the circumstances under which a business or organization can sponsor or participate in an MEP. The EO directs the Secretary of Labor to consider, within 180 days following the EO Date, proposing regulations to clarify when a group or association of employers or other appropriate business or organization can be treated as an “employer” within the meaning of Section 3(5) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”). The definition of “employer” is significant, as an employee benefit plan, such as an MEP, is typically sponsored by an “employer”. (An “employee organization”, such as a labor union, may also sponsor an employee benefit plan.) If an MEP were sponsored by businesses that were not considered a “group or association of employers” pursuant to Section 3(5) of ERISA, the MEP would not be treated as a single plan covering all of the participating businesses. In that case, each business participating in the MEP would be treated as sponsoring its own plan for all purposes under ERISA and would have to separately comply with ERISA’s requirements, such as preparing a written plan document and summary plan description, having an ERISA bond, and filing a Form 5500. Clarification of the term “employer” may allow businesses that sponsor or participate in single employer plans to treat such plans as an MEP and thereby minimize their individual responsibilities under ERISA. The clarification may also create new opportunities for businesses to sponsor MEPs.

Second, the EO may reduce compliance burdens for MEP sponsors. The EO directs the Secretary of the Treasury to consider, within 180 days following the EO Date, amending regulations to modify the rule providing that if one participating employer in an MEP fails certain non-discrimination requirements, the entire MEP fails. For example, under current Treasury regulations, the actual deferral percentage test and actual contribution percentage test are applied separately to each participating employer in the MEP, as if that employer maintained a separate plan. If one participating employer fails one of the tests, then the MEP fails the test and could potentially be disqualified for all participating employers. This regulation can present a dilemma for MEP sponsors, as they cannot be certain that each participating employer will satisfy the non-discrimination requirements. Therefore, modification of the regulations should benefit businesses that sponsor MEPs.

Third, the EO may reduce the costs associated with required disclosures to participants in MEPs, and in single employer plans. The EO directs the Secretaries of Labor and Treasury to review, within one year following the EO Date, actions that could make retirement plan disclosures more useful for participants, while reducing costs for sponsors and participating employers.

Finally, the EO directs the Secretary of the Treasury to determine, within 180 days following the EO Date, whether the actuarial tables used to calculate the amount of required minimum distributions should be updated annually (or on another periodic basis) to reflect current mortality data. This update could reduce the amount of annual required minimum distributions, which would benefit participants in single employer plans, as well as in MEPs. Such change could also reduce the administrative burden on plan sponsors and participating employers associated with making these distributions.

Takeaways

If the actions described above result in changes in law, such changes should benefit businesses that sponsor or participate in MEPs and single employer plans.   In addition, such changes may provide new opportunities for businesses to sponsor MEPs. Given the time frames imposed by the EO, businesses might see proposed regulations or other guidance addressing some of these changes during 2019.

Our colleagues at Epstein Becker Green has a post on the Retail Labor and Employment Law blog that will be of interest to our readers in the health care industry: “NYC Commission on Human Rights Issues Guidance on Employers’ Obligations Under the City’s Disability Discrimination Laws.”

Following is an excerpt:

The New York City Commission on Human Rights (“Commission”) recently issued a 146-page guide titled “Legal Enforcement Guidance on Discrimination on the Basis of Disability” (“Guidance”) to educate employers and other covered entities on their responsibilities to job applicants and employees with respect to both preventing disability discrimination and accommodating disabilities. The New York City Human Rights Law (“NYCHRL”) defines “disability discrimination” more broadly than does state or federal disability law, and the Guidance is useful in understanding how the Commission will be interpreting and enforcing the law. …

Read the full post here.

In 2018, we have seen important new wage and hour developments unfolding on a seemingly weekly basis. To help you stay up to date and out of the crosshairs of the plaintiffs’ bar, we invite you to join Epstein Becker Green’s Employment, Labor & Workforce Management Webinar Series presentation for September. Presented by our Wage and Hour practice group, this webinar will focus on wage and hour developments affecting the hospitality and home health care industries, although much of the information will also be of interest to employers in other industries.

With an eye toward the hospitality industry, the key issues we plan to cover include:

  • New statutory and regulatory changes affecting tip pooling and sharing, as well as required notice to employees
  • Litigation risks presented by service charges
  • New York’s requirements concerning spread-of-hours and call-in pay

For home health care businesses, we will focus on these topics:

  • The emerging case law on 24-hour sleep time
  • How to track hours worked, especially for employees previously viewed as exempt
  • Whether to classify workers as “employees” or “independent contractors”

Thursday, September 13, 2018

1:00 p.m. – 2:30 p.m. ET

Register for this complimentary webinar today!