In the November 2018 mid-term elections, state ballot measures for the legalization of marijuana were approved in three states – Michigan, Missouri, and Utah – and rejected in one state – North Dakota.

Michigan

Michigan is now the 10th state in the country to legalize the recreational use of marijuana under certain conditions. Michigan residents approved Proposal 1, allowing for recreational marijuana to be consumed, purchased, or cultivated by those 21 and over. The new law went into effect December 6, 2018, but the commercial system will not be running for another year. The law imposes a 10% tax on marijuana sales and will create a licensure system for dispensaries. The law does not require an employer to permit or accommodate recreational use of marijuana, nor does it prohibit an employer from refusing to hire, discharging, disciplining, or taking any other adverse action because of the violation of a workplace drug policy or working under the influence.

Missouri

In Missouri, voters rejected two of three proposals regarding marijuana, but approved a ballot measure (Amendment 2) to allow for medical marijuana to be sold at a 4% tax. Notably, all three measures would have allowed for medical marijuana, but each measure varied in terms of tax, from 2% to 15%. The 4% tax will be used to sponsor veteran’s health issues.

The Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services will implement the law’s provisions, which will take all of 2019. Medical marijuana is not expected to be available for purchase until January 2020. While the law provides certain protections for patients, medical providers, and caregivers, the law does not permit a private right of action against an employer for wrongful discharge, discrimination, or any similar cause of action based on the employer’s prohibition of the employee being under the influence of marijuana while at work or for disciplining or discharging an employee for working or attempting to work while under the influence.

Utah

Utah voters approved Proposition 2, a medicinal marijuana proposal. Proposition 2, which was opposed by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) was altered by legislation – the Utah Medical Cannabis Act (HB 3001) – after the election. On December 3, HB 3001 passed the legislature and was signed by Governor Gary Hebert. The bill stripped certain provisions of Proposition 2: patients who live more than 100 miles from a dispensary may not grow their own marijuana; patients must purchase medical marijuana through a state- or privately-run dispensary (the number of which has been reduced); and dispensaries must employee pharmacists to recommend dosages. In addition, HB 3001 added nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and high-ranking social workers to the list of health care workers that can recommend medical marijuana. HB 3001 is already the subject to two lawsuits, but currently it is scheduled to take effect on July 1, 2019.

Under the new Utah law, a patient cannot be discriminated against in the provision of medical care due to lawful use of medical marijuana, and the state may not discriminate against such users in employment. The new law, however, does not address medical marijuana use in the context of private employment. But employers may need to treat medical marijuana users the same as they treat employees with disabilities under state law, because the underlying conditions qualifying for medical marijuana use also qualify as disabilities under state law.

North Dakota

Voters in North Dakota rejected Measure 3, an initiative to legalize marijuana for recreational purposes.

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Employers and health care professionals should be ready to handle issues that arise with the potential conflict between state and federal law in devising compliance, both in terms of reporting and human resources issues. States continue to consider – and pass – legislation to legalize marijuana (both medicinal and recreational), and we are marching toward 50-state legalization. Almost all organizations – and particularly those with multi-state operations – must review and evaluate their current policies with respect to marijuana use by employees and patients.

Cannabis has been legalized in Canada as of October 17, 2018. What does this mean for employers with employees traveling to and from Canada? Can travelers from Canada to the United States with legally purchased cannabis simply drive to a state where recreational or medical use of cannabis is legal? The bottom line: Employers should remind employees that they cannot cross into the United States with Canadian cannabis under any circumstances.

The framework created in Canada did not change laws regarding borders. A traveler who purchases legal cannabis in Canada may not enter the United States with it, regardless of whether the person is traveling to a state that has legalized marijuana. Cannabis remains illegal under federal law and crossing any U.S. – Canada border will result in legal prosecution by the federal government. This applies to any amount and any form of cannabis, including medical marijuana.

The same is true if one were returning to Canada with legally purchased cannabis from Canada. This act is illegal. There is no situation where a receipt can be shown to “prove” the origin. The origin does not matter. The act of taking cannabis across the border is illegal.

Further, for the same reasons, cannabis cannot be brought on international flights even if the flight originated from Canada. It is expected that declaration forms on flights originating from Canada traveling to the U.S. may include questions on cannabis. Given how relatively new the legalization and regulation of cannabis is in Canada, travelers should expect to see and/or hear increased questions about cannabis possession and use, generally, at the borders.

Forget bringing cannabis purchased in Canada into the U.S. Even a single past use of cannabis may lead travelers to unforeseen legal troubles. The Canadian government warns that previous use of cannabis could result in the traveler being denied entry to the destination country, including the U.S. This could be a lifetime ban that may take years to sort for these noncitizens.

Certain other travelers may be inadmissible to the U.S. due to their ties to cannabis. Canadian citizens working in the marijuana industry, for example, may be denied entry to the U.S. if they are traveling to the U.S. for reasons related to that industry. In addition, while Canada intends to pardon citizens with simple marijuana possession convictions, the U.S. does not recognize foreign pardons, and so these individuals also could be deemed inadmissible to enter the U.S.